What is CBD

Cannabidiol CBD is one of the main cannabinoids found in Cannabis Sativa L.

It’s much appreciated for its relaxing, anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving effects.

It also has important and recognized antioxidant properties which make it a very popular active ingredient by the international cosmetics industry as well.

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There are numerous publications on the effectiveness of CBD, and some studies are still under development.

In some cases, it has proved effective in the treatment of several ailments and pathologies in the following categories:

  • Neurological and neurogenerative
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Oncological
  • Psychological Disorders
  • Gynaecological
  • Rheumatological
  • Muscular
  • Skeletal

According to some studies, CBD has also been effective in treating anxiety, depression, insomnia, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and several specific pathologies, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.


The endocannabinoid system is one of the biological systems found in the human body, such as the nervous system, the immune system and the endocrine system, with which it prefers to interact as a modulator.

It is a system comprised of three elements: the cannabinoids, which can be both endogenous – which are identified with the nomenclature of endocannabinoids – and exogenous – called phytocannabinoids – found in nature inside several different plants, but especially in Sativa Hemp.

They are the molecules which transmit signals and information to the other cells found in the human body.

To do so, they need to interact with another element: cannabinoid receptors, which are divided into two fundamental types: CB1 and CB2 receptors, disseminated inside various systems and membranes of our body.

To Simplify, one could say that CB1 receptors are found in the nervous system and brain, while CB2 receptors tend to be present inside the immune system.

The last element that composes the Endocannabinoid System are enzymes: proteins which allow for the communication between cannabinoids and endocannabinoid receptors at a technical level.

Endocannabinoids are therefore small signal molecules, which derive from a polyunsaturated fatty acid: arachidonic acid.

The whole of an individual’s endocannabinoids is identified as the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system acts on the regulation of a wide variety of both physiological and cognitive processes, such as appetite, pain sensation or mood.

Let’s consider cannabinoids as “messengers” which function inside our bodies. Two types of them can be found: those that originate within our body (the endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol, (2-AG) and anandamide) and those that originate from the outside instead (exocannabinoids), and which are found inside the cannabis plant.

Two of the best known exocannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol.


CBD oil indirectly acts on the endocannabinoid system’s receptions, which are essential for maintaining balance in the body. The peculiar modes of interaction between CBD and the endocannabinoid system make CBD oil particularly suitable for human benefit, even in certain situations where conventional drugs appear to be insufficient.


The “Entourage effect” is the mechanism through which substances contained in hemp act in synergy to exert distinct effects.

This “entourage effect” states that Hemp’s phytocomplex, i.e., the group of chemicals contained in the plants, is more effective when all its compounds act in unison, rather than a single chemical component in its isolated form.

Until recently, scientific research had focused exclusively on the properties of the plant’s cannabinoids (such as cannabidiol, CBD), with little focus on the role of terpenes. Today, however, we know that the interaction between cannabinoids and terpenes in Cannabis Sativa gives rise to what is called the entourage effect: the combined action of all substances making up this plant.

Ethan B. Russo, a researcher at GW Pharmaceuticals, published, in 2011, the result of his research on the interaction between cannabinoids and terpenes. His research – published in the pages of the prestigious British Journal of Pharmacology – had shown that the data up to that time indicated how the full spectrum of cannabis substances were able to strengthen and expand its clinical applications.